Activities such as agriculture, livestock and power generation are transforming the landscapes of the world. Forests and their biodiversity are being rapidly eliminated around the world, without realizing that we are threatening our own survival. Is it possible to design friendly landscapes where biodiversity and humans can coexist in a sustainable way?
Our recent study indicates that it is, and we know how to do it. Decades of research on how species respond to the loss, fragmentation, and degradation of their natural habitats have allowed us to understand their ecological requirements. Based on this knowledge we can identify the most urgent and efficient conservation measures.
As detailed in the paper, there are four steps to achieving landscapes that benefit biodiversity while promoting human well-being.
Step 1: Stop Deforestation
The first and most urgent thing is to stop deforestation. Forests are home to most of the planet's terrestrial species. Deforestation is considered the greatest threat to biodiversity.
It is estimated that about 50% of all the trees in the world have disappeared since the beginning of human civilization. Today, more than 15 billion trees are cut down every year (about 500 trees per second).
About 43% of the remaining trees (3.04 billion) are in tropical and subtropical forests, which are currently the most deforested in the world. In order to make our contribution and stop deforestation, we have completely switched to electronic document management in our office of free essay writer it is small drop in the ocean, but if we want to avoid the extinction of millions of species on the planet, we must stop deforestation.
Step 2: Recover the lost forest
In many regions, the remaining forest is insufficient to ensure the future of biodiversity. Therefore, restoring the lost forest is a priority, especially in the landscapes that need it most.
But how much forest should we keep in the landscape? Our review indicates that a conservative figure is at least 40% of the landscape covered by forest. This figure supports recent proposals to conserve half the planet. This percentage may be too low to preserve tropical species. In the tropics we should conserve a higher percentage of forests.
Step 3: preserve a lot of small areas
Conservation (step 1) and restoration (step 2) should not focus on a few large areas, but on many small areas.
Each forest fragment may contain unique species, and therefore a larger set of small fragments usually contains more species than a few large fragments.
In addition, increasing the number of fragments in the landscape reduces the distance between them, which facilitates the movement of species and their acquisition of resources.
Step 4: Improve the quality of land used by humans
Finally, we must make the productive land surrounding the forest fragments as environmentally friendly as possible. To this end, among other measures, we recommend:
Reducing the extension of lands that are harmful to biodiversity, such as large estates devoid of trees for livestock and monoculture.
Stimulate agricultural practices adapted to the environmental conditions (soil, water, climate and biota) of each region to reduce inputs such as water and agrochemicals.
Promote food production through agroforestry systems that combine native trees, crops and/or domestic animals on the same land.
Delimit productive land with live fences, such as hedges or similar.
Avoid the expansion of roads, hydroelectric dams and mining, especially in the vicinity of natural areas.
Promote economic activities that value conserved forests, such as ecotourism or sustainable trade in forest products.
Benefits for humans
Forests are not only home to millions of indigenous people. They also provide a host of goods and services.
Forests and other wooded elements provide timber, firewood, livestock feed, food plants, meat, cash crops, and medicinal plants for local communities. They also play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of the planet, regulating water cycles and many basic elements for life (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, etc.).
The large masses of trees act as huge carbon sinks and thus prevent global warming. The forest fragments also cool the local environment and help regulate water quantity and quality. By buffering rainfall, they prevent erosion and loss of soil nutrients, thus contributing to the sustainability of agriculture.
Other no less important services include the regeneration of degraded areas, the pollination of crops and the biological control of pests and pandemics such as COVID-19.
Building the ideal landscape together
Today few people doubt the current environmental crisis, but they do doubt that it has a solution. Science has revealed that solutions do exist, although their implementation will require the efforts of all.
Politics must promote measures that stop large-scale deforestation and promote restoration, such as the creation of biological reserves and corridors and payment for environmental services. Incentives for biodiversity-friendly crops are also very valuable, as can be taxes on those products that are more environmentally costly (such as meat).
Society can also support the cause. Any effort, no matter how small, can add up to a big positive impact.
A simple and immediate way to protect the forests is to change our diet, especially to one based on plants, something healthy for us and for the planet.
- We can donate to causes such as buying land for conservation and restoration.
- We can be more conscious consumers, prioritizing the purchase of local products, especially organic, and avoiding the purchase of products that involve the conversion of forests.
- We must reduce our consumption. Although we may not realize it, energy, transportation, food and beverages, housing, including furniture and appliances in our homes, directly or indirectly demand many forest resources.
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Not such a big amount of people concentrate to writing a decent paper page. Sometimes students aren't alert to the importance of getting a canopy page that entices readers to scan the complete contents of the file. this point we are going to provide you with some instructions on a way to improve the presentation of your page.
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There are many theories that have been developed in the field of teaching, always seeking to improve existing methods.
One of the most important today is the elaboration theory of Charles M. Reigeluth explained here: https://writemypaper4me.co/research-paper-writing-for-sale/.
Through these paragraphs, we can learn more about this model, what is
the methodology it uses and what are the qualities that make it one of
the most relevant of the moment.
What is the Theory of Elaboration of Charles M. Reigeluth?
The elaboration theory of Charles M. Reigeluth is a methodology developed by this American educational researcher. Reigeluth is an eminence in the generation of theories of instructional design, that is, the creation of models for teaching that seek maximum efficiency when it comes to ensuring that students maximize learning of the new proposed content. It is in this framework that the theory of elaboration is included.
The key to this theory would be to organize this teaching from the simplest to the most complex assumptions, thus increasing the level of demand in a totally progressive way and facilitating the student to consolidate each phase before facing the next one at the level of complexity. In addition, another of the points that Charles M. Reigeluth's theory of elaboration highlights is that at the end of each stage of teaching a summary of everything seen so far must be made.
This progressive consolidation in each phase is one of the hallmarks of this methodology. Reviewing all of the above each time one of the lessons is completed is a very powerful system in order to fix the contents in the mind of the learner, since it allows them to establish associations of concepts and achieve that gradual learning that this method seeks.
Another of the qualities that Charles M. Reigeluth's theory of elaboration highlights is that of using the power of real context or examples when teaching strategies, so that they are not mere empty concepts, since by having a specific scenario on which to apply these teachings to the student will be much easier to assimilate the new information and make this knowledge durable.
Components of the theory of elaboration
The elaboration theory of Charles M. Reigeluth is designed to be carried out thanks to seven fundamental components that must always be present if we want to take advantage of the full potential of this methodology and thus achieve the best possible results when teaching students through it. Let's look at each of them in greater detail.
1. Elaborative sequence
The concepts and strategies to be taught must be developed through a sequence. In addition, we already saw at the beginning that said sequence has to be designed in such a way that it starts with the most basic elements and these gradually become more and more complex. It is the main characteristic of the theory of elaboration of Charles M. Reigeluth.
This sequencing establishes some prerequisites before starting each new phase of learning that refer to the consolidation of one stage before being able to start the next. In this sense, if we are using the theory of elaboration to teach concepts that are divided into five stages, we will not be able to go to two until one has been correctly learned, nor to three until the same has been done with the two, and so on.
We also saw in the previous point that one of the defining characteristics of Charles M. Reigeluth's theory of elaboration is the establishment of summaries that are placed at the end of each phase. Each summary should include not only the concepts developed in the completed level, but also those of all the previous ones, so that they are cumulative.
That is to say, each stage that we start and finish will include a summary of everything that has been seen up to that moment, a fantastic mechanism to ensure that the student does not forget any of the teachings that we have previously taught. because the objective is that all the knowledge is consolidated.
Likewise, and since we are seeing that the concepts are cumulative, it is important to be good at synthesizing the matter seen until then since if we do not run the risk of needing too much time to revisit content that, once seen, can be condensed into its most basic components no need to repeat everything from the beginning. Therefore the synthesis will be another component of the theory of elaboration of Charles M. Reigeluth.
As important as using summaries is establishing analogies and examples so that the learner can visualize the theoretical concepts that we are putting on the table in a more realistic setting. These analogies will help you create a mental image that, in collaboration with the theoretical explanation, will facilitate the learning of the the entire block of knowledge that we are sending you.
6. Cognitive strategies
In order to facilitate learning, the elaboration theory of Charles M. Reigeluth indicates that the instructor or teacher can make use of different cognitive strategies, adapting to the characteristics of the student, so that the concepts are assimilated in the most efficient way. These cognitive strategies refer to the different ways by which we can use our intellectual capacities to achieve learning.
7. Student control
The last of the points that make up the characteristics of Charles M. Reigeluth's theory of elaboration is that of student control. This control is given by all the points that we have seen in the list, since the set of all of them allow the apprentice to have the certainty of being able to generate the appropriate learning at any stage, returning to it if necessary and taking advantage of the resources available your disposition.
In this way, the person ensures that they can understand the level they are studying without being forced to move on to the next one ahead of time. The idea is to provide all the facilities for the current phase to be properly consolidated, without leaving gaps in this learning process that gradually diminish the effectiveness of the methodology in question. It is what guarantees the correct operation of this strategy.
The author of this methodology
The creation of the elaboration theory of Charles M. Reigeluth, as well as others that this author developed within the field of instructional design theories represented a great leap in the field of education, especially in the United States. Charles Reigeluth embodied his models primarily through a four-volume series called Theories and Models of Instructional Design.
In them, the elaboration theory itself is detailed, but also other very important ones such as the simulation theory. Reigleluth has dedicated two decades of research in this field to fight for the reinvention of the methodologies traditionally used in American schools. This purpose is also reflected in two of his main books, Reinventing Schools: Time to Break the Mold and Vision and Action: Reinventing Schools through Personalized Competency-Based Education.
Charles Reigeluth was able to carry out formative research, that is, directly applying his methodologies on the ground and thus discovering what his real potential was and knowing the specific situations that favored or hindered learning, thus obtaining very valuable information in order to be able to polish your models.
He also researched in-depth about the technological requirements that student-centered methodologies (like the ones he proposed) needed. Thanks to his studies with the University of Indiana, he verified that there were four main issues that required the use of technology.
The first of these would be to be able to keep the necessary records for learning. The second would consist of everything related to the establishment of goals that have been previously planned. Next would come the instruction of the program itself. And it would end with the evaluation through which the level of effectiveness of the program would be verified, verifying if the student has correctly acquired the proposed contents or, on the contrary, it is necessary to go back over them to consolidate them.
It is clear that Charles M. Reigeluth's theory of elaboration is only one part of a lifetime dedicated to the improvement of educational models.
El proceso de alfabetización es una de las etapas más importantes y complejas en la formación de los estudiantes. En un corto período de tiempo, el niño comienza a explorar el inmenso mundo de la lectura y la escritura. Hay estudiantes que pasan por este proceso con bastante calma, algunos incluso logran desarrollar la escritura y la lectura de forma autónoma.
Pero en algunos casos, es necesario hacer un seguimiento muy estrecho con los educadores y también con los padres para que los niños puedan lograr un aprendizaje significativo. Por lo tanto, es importante respetar el tiempo y las particularidades de cada estudiante.
Por ello en este artículo le dejamos algunos consejos que pueden serle útiles para ayudar a su hijo a desarrollar la lectoescritura.
Lea junto con su hijo
Destine una hora o más al día para leer con su hijo, es importante que la lectura capte la atención del pequeño, por lo que debe usar recursos textuales que le sean divertidos, historias o cuentos para niños sirven.
Existen una gran cantidad de libros para aprender a leer enfocados en ser de ayuda para los más pequeños, muchos de estos recursos son incluso gratuitos (normalmente en formato digital).
Lea a su hijo y mientras lo hace, señale con su dedo las palabras, hágalo con calma. Después túrnese para que el también lea, es imprescindible que sea comprensivo, el objetivo es hacer que esta dinámica sea divertida y no la peor parte del día para el pequeño. Haga pausas convenientes para preguntar al niño sobre los dibujos que se ilustran en el cuento, por ejemplo “¿Qué está haciendo el personaje?” “¿Qué problema tiene?” entre otras preguntas que permitan al pequeño desarrollar su habilidad de lectocomprensión.
Evite convertir el aprendizaje de la lectura y escritura en algo estresante
Debe crear un ambiente de confianza, los niños son como esponjas de conocimiento, pero tanto si son niños como si son adultos, a todos se nos dificulta pensar si estamos estresados, por ello, promueva un ambiente de confianza y haga de este tiempo una actividad divertida, se sorprenderá de los resultados.
Cuando un niño llega a la edad de leer y escribir, los padres suelen estar ansiosos por ver a su hijo leer una frase o escribir los nombres de sus familiares. Es esencial controlar la ansiedad, porque, si es percibida por el niño, puede generar angustia y dificultar el proceso. Sin embargo, como se ha mencionado, cada niño tiene su propio tiempo y respetar esto es esencial para ayudar a su hijo a leer y escribir.
Es interesante que las familias sepan que las escuelas desarrollan programas específicos de alfabetización, con algunos pasos importantes. Este proceso se inicia en la educación infantil y se refuerza al inicio de la primaria. Sabiendo esto, es esencial que los padres no traten de atropellar la planificación escolar, cargando a sus hijos con conocimientos que aún no han adquirido.
Estimular el aprendizaje de manera idónea
Un consejo importante para ayudar a su hijo a leer y escribir es crear situaciones que le animen a practicar lo que está aprendiendo de la alfabetización. Es esencial que este estímulo se presente de manera natural y relajada, porque el tono de la sesión de lectura y escritura puede perjudicar el rendimiento del joven.
Cuando salen a pasear con el niño, los padres pueden jugar a tratar de leer los carteles de la calle. En casa, cuando se prepara la lista para el supermercado, la familia puede invitar al pequeño a insertar algunos elementos más simples para escribir, como el pan y la sal. De manera lúdica, los padres fomentarán el placer de la lectura y la escritura. Aunque se cometan algunos errores en estas iniciativas para ayudar a su hijo a leer y escribir, es importante valorar el esfuerzo del pequeño y mostrarle, de forma motivadora, qué puntos deben corregirse.